In The Starfish and the Spider, authors Ori Brafman and Rod A. Beckstrom and define two essential types of organizations: centralized structures, with their clear hierarchies and chains of command, and decentralized or “open” systems, which operate based on a completely different and in many cases opposite set of rules. Their discovery of what they call “the new physics of human organization” may prove to be one of the defining paradigms of the twenty-first century economy.